Construction technology: bored piles and columns, jet-grouting, jet-columns, grouting, diaphragm walls, shoring of excavation, consolidation of foundation and foundation bed, jet-grouting curtain, micropiles, anchors, lining, waterproofing, bed drainage, dewatering.

Underground-aboveground parking in Turchaninov Lane was constructed by JSC “Avtotranscomplekt” under the narrow conditions to the address: Turchaninov Lane, 6, between a secondary school, Pocrova Bogoroditsi Old Belief Church and building of Russian folklore Center. Car parking includes four underground stores and four aboveground ones. In aboveground part service and office centres are placed.

The parking underground part was constructed on the boundary of the flood-plain and the second terrace of the Moskva-river in unstable watered soils. Incline of the basic flood-layers soil strata, one-sidedly loaded by the terrace with buildings, towards the river greatly complicated the construction in the process of 13.3 m deep pit excavation.

During the geological exploration on the construction site an erosive incut (where the recent alluvial sediments occur on the over-coal strata) was discovered.

Geological structure on the site is of a miscellaneous character with irregularly deposit of layers and is represented by:

  • fill-up soils, including sands and clay sands rarely with construction waste;

  • silt and fine sands, medium sands with gravel, gravel-detritus soils, water-saturated;

  • soft-plastic loams and carbonate clays with sand seams, in some places with vegetable     remains, hard-plastic;

  • gravely-sands and coarse one with crushed stone and pebble, fine sands and silt one,     water-saturated;

  • loams and clays with gravel and crushed stone, micaceous clays with remains of crashed fauna,     both soft- and hard-plastic;

  • Perkhurovsky limestone eroded to small blocks, crushed stone and powder, of low hardness,     water-bearing;

  • solid marly-clays and fractured marls of low hardness of Neverovsky layer, water-bearing;

  • Rutmirovsky water-bearing fractured limestones of low hardness.

    Diaphragm walls erection. Reinforcing cages making on the construction site. Pit excavation under protection of temporary metal support. Partial flooding of excavation pit due to penetration of pressure waters through the fissured marl seams in the layer of Neverovsky marly-clays.
    The in-situ reinforced concrete bearing diaphragm walls with the thickness of 60 cm, depth of 16.3 m and the total area of 3655 m2 being the bearing structures and antifiltration at the same time were used as the excavation enclosure. The walls were deepened into relatively waterproof layer of Neverovsky marly-clays and fractured marls of low hardness.

    Deepening of diaphragm walls into the layer of Voskresensky waterproof clays lying below Rutmirovsky limestone was considered to be unreasonable as it would require the application of hydro-cutter for trench excavation, increase the walls depth not up to 7-8 m, essentially rise the construction cost.

    Diaphragm walls were constructed by application of hydraulic grab equipment by technology developed by French company "SOLETANCHE BACHY", providing for sealing of joints between panels by "Waterstops" (Fragment of preliminary panel with "Waterstop" waterproofing gasket after removal of "Stopsol" stopend.).

    Trenches were excavated under protection of bentonite slurry by portions 5.0-7.5 m length. The quality of joints between diaphragm walls was secured due to using of L-shaped corner portions.
  • High quality of joints between panels (to exclude any mud joints) was ensured by removable stopends ("Stopsol") of preliminary trench portions, as well as by preliminary excavation of secondary and following portions until removed.

    According the general designer claim execution of longitudinal grooves of depth under 70 mm in the places of the foundation slab and intermediate floor-slabs joining and rebar outlets – in the places of floor-slabs joining.

    Grooves in diaphragm walls were formed by filling the required zones of reinforcing cages with polystyrene foam blocks, covered in PE film t=0.16 mm and fixed to working reinforcement by metal wire.

    The ground-works and dewatering project was sacrificed in the process of pit excavation by the developer to save money with the hope that the contractors can solve these problems themselves using the allocated funds. As a result the excavation had being executed practically without a project and often caused our dissatisfaction with soil excess and untimely temporary support installation.

    Temporary support of excavation pit was executed as two-tired. The upper tire of buntons and braces made of 820 mm diameter metal pipes was supported by an in-situ reinforced concrete framing beam along of the diaphragm walls top. The lower tire of buntons and braces made of 820 - 1020 mm diameter metal pipes was supported by a belt made of the three-throw flange beams ¹55Á1.

    During the soil excavation on the lower layer (to the excavation pit bottom designed level) through the fractured marl seams in the layer of Neverovsky marly-clays water began to enter the excavation pit from the Rutmirovsky horizon with water production of 5-6 m3/h from the area of 600-700 m2, which required preventive measures against pressure water inrush and flooding of the pit.

    As a result the customer had to break the excavation and promptly order a project of dewatering of Rutmirovsky horizon pressure waters to professionals. Dewatering and observation boreholes were placed partly outside the contour and partly – inside the excavation pit. Total of boreholes production was about 300 m3/h.

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